TURKEY

The ASFA commonly found on the hilt of  Turkish bayonets is the stamp indicting its manufacture/conversion by the army arsenal that came into existence in 1929, converted blades without the ASFA stamp were converted before this time. The Turks converted large numbers of bayonets to fit their own weapons, you can find most variations of WWI German made bayonets, Rumanian, Yugoslavian, Czechoslovak and British (also Australian). They also converted their own 1890 and 1903 pattern bayonets. Many were converted to the "1935" pattern to fit a Spanish version of the standard Mauser rifle, these typically have a 10" (250mm) blade and cross guard modifications to mount onto this rifle. Some of these blades were also converted to mount onto the US M1 rifle, these typically have a straight sided crossguard.

Collecting Turkish bayonets is a field on its own with a huge number of variations, with their being variations within the variations. Many UK 1907 pattern bayonets are sold as Gallipoli captures, although there were substantial numbers of captured blades one needs to study the markings closely to rule out the large numbers that were bought in the late 20's (you will see 20's rework marks on the blades or manufacture dates after 1917), additionally Australian marks do not necessarily indicate use in Gallipoli, I have an Australian marked blade but it was made after the battle and would most likely be part of a shipment post WWI to the Turkish allies.

In the19060's the Turkish introduced the FN FAL rifle into service and made their own distinctive bayonet. Often sold as an Ersatz German Bayonet these twin ring bayonets come in four slightly different styles but all are made after the 60's and not WWI conversions.

 

1874 Peabody Yataghan, converted to side arm status by removing the locking stud and replacing the leather grips with replacement wooden ones. The replacement grips  can be plain or checkered

 

Markings on underside of pommel

 

There are very few markings on the blade, and all metal surfaces have been refinished in a matt black finish which is in good condition

 

 

Right Grips, with leaf spring

 

Left Grips

turkish peabody straightened.jpg (82192 bytes)

Peabody bayonet shortened and straightened with modified leather scabbard 

turkish peabody straightened steel scabbard.jpg (82757 bytes)

Peabody bayonet shortened and straightened steel scabbard 

Turkey.jpg (43768 bytes)

1890

turkey 1890 full.jpg (65612 bytes)turkey 1890 ricasso.jpg (81542 bytes)turkey 1890 pommel.jpg (76122 bytes)

1890 in leather scabbard

 

Ricasso marks on 1890 showing manufacture by Simson and Co Suhl

 

1890 Pommel marks

1903 converted by adding a plug o the muzzle ring into which a screwed rod can be fitted to take the earthing strap for telegraphy

turkey 1903 full.jpg (60256 bytes)turkey 1903 ricasso.jpg (94744 bytes)

1903, leather scabbard shows damage due to moisture and drying

 

Simson and Co Suhl markings

Turkey 98 05 modified without ring.jpg (139598 bytes)

Shortened German 98/05 without the normal muzzle ring addition

1903, although similar to the German 1898 the pommel and crossguard are different

 

Straight pommel and curved quillion are different to the German 1898

 

 

Star mark on pommel

 

Crescent mark on pommel

 

 

Throat is marked with crescent

 

Turkish ricasso mark indicates German makers name

1903 short, this is the purpose made short and not shortened as indicated by the short fuller, as opposed to one extending through the point

 

 

Scabbard has the correct 1903 hole, many are in modified 1935 scabbards

 

Pommel Turkish markings

 

Markings under the cross guard

 

 

ASFA stamp is post 1929

Mauser Milanovich saber has been shortened to fit with 1935 pattern blades

 

Original makers mark still on ricasso

 

 

Cross guard modified to mount on 1935 pattern Mauser rifle

1935 conversion of an EB9 ersatz

Ersatz bayonet (EB24) shortened to 10" blade but otherwise unmodified

 

Left hilt of above, blade is unfullered

Ersatz bayonet (EB25a) shortened to 10" blade but otherwise unmodified. It is not known if the removal of the muzzle ring was carried out by the Germans or the Turks

 

Left hilt of above, blade is unfullered

Ersatz bayonet (EB34) shortened to 10" blade but otherwise unmodified

 

"Bent" muzzle ring is original to this model of ersatz bayonet

 

Left hilt,  blade is fullered

turkey 1935 leaf spring.jpg (90076 bytes)

1935 Leaf Spring model

 

Close up of External spring 1935 

1935 model with a large ASFA stamp on the hilt, much larger than the normal ASFA on the pommel and not commonly seen

turkey romanian mannlicher conversion.jpg (75382 bytes)

Rumanian Mannlicher conversion 

turk ersatz cut down 2 pt cross guard.jpg (84485 bytes)

German Ersatz cut down. Two part cross guard with fullers 

turkey janzen 194-2 hilt and scabbard.jpg (71401 bytes)

German Ersatz cut down,

 

Cross guard moved back up hilt, rather than shortened hilt as is more normal. Close up of modified hilt. Scabbard has Leather throat piece welded to steel body 

turkish ersatz 1.jpg (82434 bytes)turkish ersatz 1 grip numbers.jpg (97270 bytes)

1915 Ersatz German cut down with fullers 

turkish ersatz 2.jpg (96675 bytes)

1915 Ersatz German cut down without fullers 

turkey 1935.jpg (117390 bytes)

M1935 new made bayonet 

trurk 1935 with frog.jpg (77839 bytes)

1935 with frog 

turkey 1935 convert.jpg (121341 bytes)

M1935 conversion of 1903 model 

Turkish shortened s98 .jpg (71586 bytes)Turkish shortened s98 czech scabbard.jpg (122898 bytes)

Shortened German S98 quillback bayonet 

 

Scabbard of above, a shortened and re throated Czech "Mauser" scabbard

turkey ground blade 98-05 with sawback.jpg (100450 bytes)

Shortened and ground saw backed German 98/05

 

Close up of blade on ground sawback 

turkey ground blade 98-05.jpg (103849 bytes)Turkish 190-3 cude grinding.jpg (114140 bytes)

Shortened and ground German 98/05 

 

Close up of the badly ground end of the above blade 

Turkish 1935.jpg (62539 bytes)

1935 using modified German 98/05 scabbard

Turkish 194-1.jpg (83207 bytes)

Conversion by shortening and grinding of German Ersatz M1916 bayonet 13.5mm muzzle ring indicates this conversion is for the M1 Garand rifle (thanks Otto)

Turkish 194-1 hilt close up.jpg (67248 bytes)

Converted Ersatz

 

Close up of above blade showing crude welding of new cross guard onto bayonet, and the small muzzle ring diameter

Turkish Ersatz green painted.jpg (80761 bytes)

Shortened German all steel Ersatz 

turkey czech vz23 short modified.jpg (81960 bytes)

Czech 1895, crossguard has been modified 

 

Comparison of hilt length with normal VZ24 

Modified VZ23 cross guard for 1935 rifle

 
Total length =  mm                  Blade length = mm              Blade width =  mm              MRD =  mm                           
Cut down M24 long
Turkey Czech vz23 short.jpg (76938 bytes)Turkey Czech vz23 short ricasso stamp.jpg (123251 bytes)

Czech VZ23 unmodified 

 

Ricasso marks on VZ23 

turkey German Ersatz EB28.jpg (90498 bytes)

German Ersatz Carter EB28 

 

Hilt markings on above blade

turkey 1916 ersatz cross guard marks.jpg (53225 bytes)

German made 1916 Ersatz for Turkey Crossguard marks and indent 

Converted UK 1907 pattern  scabbard showing AT3 stamp of Yugoslav based scabbard 

Turkey 1903 shortened.jpg (77875 bytes)

Shortened 1903, with intact quillion 

turkey s98 98.05 sawback removed.jpg (84827 bytes)

1935 pattern conversions of German S98 and S98/05 pattern sawbacks. both have only partial removal of sawback, and show signs of the hilts being shortened, resulting in longer riccasso's

Turkey 71 84.jpg (77228 bytes)Turkey 71 84 german marks.jpg (97492 bytes)Turkey 71 84 german turkish marks.jpg (90815 bytes)Turkey 71 84 throat damage.jpg (48421 bytes)

German 71/84 with added sawback - non original to blade as it is too short in total lengthened number of teeth to be an originally made sawback

 

1888 issue marks on 71/84

 

German acceptance marks on pommel, and Turkish serial on crossguard

 

 

Saw back has been on the blade for some time as there is typical throat damage from sawback insertion into scabbard

Australian made 1907

 

1907 Pattern marks on Ricasso

 

Australian makers mark and converted crossguard

Turkey converted 1907.jpg (85973 bytes)Turkey converted 1907 27 date stamp.jpg (94804 bytes)

UK 1907 converted to '35 standard bayonet

 

1927 marks on blade show this is post war purchase and not WWI captured blade, bayonet is originally made 1915

Shortened UK 1907, this bayonet shows a 1945 manufacture date so shows that the 1935 model; continued to be produced after WWII

 

Raised muzzle ring and shaved pommel

 

Scabbard uses the throat from a UK scabbard brazed into the body of a shortened German 98/05 scabbard

 

Scabbard is not the late crimped scabbard

 

 

WSC S294 marks of WWII production Wilkinson manufactured bayonet, date shows this to be a 1945 produced models

Turkey converted yugo long VZ.jpg (84486 bytes)Turkey converted yugo long VZ BT3 marks.jpg (93411 bytes)

Yugoslav VZ long bayonet converted to '35 standard length

 

 

BT3 arsenal marks on converted VZ bayonet

Turkey converted 05 for czech VZ rifle.jpg (77506 bytes)Turkey converted 05 for czech VZ rifle new ring.jpg (88249 bytes)

98/05 nA conversion, I am assuming that the new ring fits Czech 1922 rifle 

 

Mauser blade marks on 1918 made 98/05 with added muzzle ring

Turkey converted 05 mS for czech VZ rifle.jpg (76473 bytes)

98/05nA mS sawbacked butcher blade conversion to '35 standard, probably for the Czech rifle

Turkey converted 05 mS for czech VZ rifle new ring.jpg (88807 bytes)

Mauser blade marks on 1917 made 98/05 sawback with added muzzle ring

Cut down 98/05 with added muzzle ring and removed sawback

 

Added muzzle ring and showing signs of removed sawback

Turk conversion square fullers.jpg (94803 bytes)

Squared fuller 1935 from unknown blade

Turkish 190-3.jpg (95062 bytes)

Converted from German M16 Ersatz by shortening and grinding original shape would be as a German 98/05 

turky 1935.jpg (93150 bytes)

M1935 new made bayonet 

Turkey twin ring ersatz 1.jpg (105161 bytes)

Twin ringed for FAL with fullers also available with an un fullered blade

Turkey twin ring ersatz notched cross guard.jpg (81454 bytes)

Notched muzzle ring on twin ring bayonet. Have fullered and un fullered versions with this ring 

Turkey twin ring ersatz straight cross guard.jpg (106421 bytes)

Straight muzzle ring on twin ring bayonet. Have fullered and un fullered versions with this ring 

Garand model made by adding an additional plate onto the existing crossguard of a 1935 pattern bayonet, this new plate has a smaller off centre hole designed to mate with the Garand flash hider

The added plate is pined into position on the existing cross guard

WWI produced German 84/98

 

Blade shows heavy grinding

 

 

Back edge of blade has date removed

 

Original makers mark

1935 Mauser bayonet modified to fit n the US M1 Garand rifle

 

Spacer with small muzzle ring added to original cross guard.

 

 

Frog for US webbing

 

 

1935 made by converting a WWI German brass hilted ersatz by adding a new cross guard approximately 20mm back from its original position. Very crude brazing holds on the steel cross guard to the brass hilt. For comparison the bottom picture shows an unmodified original German bayonet with original cast on muzzle ring

German 98/05 fitted with a muzzle ring probably to mount on the original Mauser rifle as it is low to the tang. Interestingly the blade has been shortened to the "standard" 10" blade length, but the original sawback has not been removed by grinding.

turkey 1891 general.jpg (314992 bytes)turkey 1891 iveshk mark.jpg (176223 bytes)

Russian 1891 Mosin Nagant shortened for use by Turkey

 

Blade originally made by Iveshk armory

turkey G3 scabbard.jpg (328510 bytes)

turkey G3 scabbard markings.jpg (217839 bytes)

Scabbard for G3 bayonet

Ersatz, this version has the twist in the blade behind the cross guard, and what at first glance an 1895 crossguard, however this is roughly made and much heavier than the 1895 ones. The muzzle ring is not even cantered in the cross guard. These are often identified as Austrian, many thanks to Otto for correcting this miss ID

The scabbard is an Austrian Ersatz.

M1916 ersatz in ersatz Austrian scabbard, scabbard and hilt are painted with the same color. This M1916 has German inspection marks on the ricasso and the pommel.

1918 pattern ersatz frog, uses multiple layers of thin leather rather than one piece of heavier.

 

Early production VZ24

 

1923 date on Czech issue mark

 

 

Pommel shows multiple re issues

 

1887

 

star under cross guard

 

Sultans mark on pommel shows this was Turkish issue (many of these blades were held by the Germans due to the change to the 1890 pattern)

 

Weyersberg Kirschbaum and Cie Solingen makers mark, date is 1889 so is among the last made (date corrected by Otto from my original 1890 transcription)

 

 

Blade spine marks

 

Locket

Converted Rumanian 1893 to fit Export mauser
  98/05 modified to fit the export pattern rifle by adding a high muzzle ring directly to the blade tang, instead of moving the cross guard back and adding it  to that 

 

Bayonet is a US 1905 cut down to 10"  and bought in a Turkish style scabbard. Turkish use is tentative based on scabbard and length

 

Black handle and blade ground to below fuller depth

UK No 4 
Aluminum No4 
German 84/98 sawback in FAG scabbard

Long bladed G3 bayonet in what appears to be a WWI FAG style scabbard, thought to be Turkish

1935
Total length = mm                  Blade length =  Blade width =  MRD = 
An interesting variation on the 1935 model, this one has used a standard US belt hanger screwed to the original scabbard, but is it bubba or Turkish??

A collection of shortened 1907's without any further modifications, indicating that they were used on SMLE rifles, the dates on the blades and the other indicators such as the late pattern scabbards with compressed throat fittings indicate that the SMLE was used post WWII by Turkey. Blades are both UK and Australian made and examples have been noted by all manufacturers including Remington and Mole

 

Lithgow made 10 21

Late production scabbard with compression fitted throat

Blades come with spear point and "bowie" point

"Bowie" pointed

This blade showed a double Lithgow stamping on the blade

This scabbard has been cut short and the bottom stitched without replacing the chape

Hand stitched scabbard

1919 Lithgow

Canadian acceptance mark on pommel

South African acceptance mark

Could this be a 1MD marking?

Australian 2MD marked with matching unit marked scabbard throat

Australian 3MD marked with matching unit marked scabbard throat

 

Australian 4MD marked

Australian 5MD marked

Australian 6D^D marked - Tasmania

Steel scabbard

When shortening this one the leather ahs been reversed giving a seam up the rear of the scabbard

Steel scabbards use the 1907 throat welded to a new steel body

 

US 1855 Socket
Total length = mm                  Blade length =  Blade width =  MRD = 
Turkish ricasso markings on 1855 US socket
1935 pattern bayonet
Total length = mm                  Blade length =  Blade width =  MRD = 
Long  spring version of 1935 made in ASFA period