BAYONET TERMS

There are a lot of terms used for the parts of a bayonet tend its scabbard, as well as descriptions of styles, types etc. as well as terms used by collectors which may not be obvious to new collectors or collectors who restrict themselves to a particular period, style or country. Below I will attempt to bring all the terms together along with a description and an interesting (and possibly different) example. I will also try to cover common misconceptions (the reason for fullers), terms that are misused (scales), and common terms used by collectors (Turked)

The descriptions are mine but taken from common consensus. Any mistakes are mine or are a result of looking at something from a different perspective. I have tried where possible to include less common or out of use terms.

 

1920

With the Versailles treaty the Germans were restricted to only a small standing army, all issued weapons were marked with a 1920 date to show that they were officially issued pieces.

Picture shows the 1920 marking on a 84/98

Acceptance mark A mark on the bayonet marking its acceptance by an inspector

German Waffenampt on a Polish M39 indicating acceptance by a German inspector
Adjusting Screw Early production methods meant each rifle was individually made producing variations in barrel diameters to allow the bayonets to fit muzzle rings were fitted with adjusting screws that allowed a small variations in diameter to allow it to fit

Adjusting screw on a French 1866
Aged

Normally taken to indicate artificial aging of a replica/fake in order to give it the appearance of an original item and not newly made

 

A Chinese 1866 style copy deliberately rusted to add age to a new made item.

Apple corer A name given the socket style FN FAL bayonet

Arsenal Mark

A marking on a bayonet which indicates the accepting, manufacturer or storage arsenal for a bayonet.

Top example a Czech marked ex German S98

2nd Arsenal mark on the spine of a French 1874 Gras

Back

Usually the flat top edge of a bayonet, often referred to as the spine

 

Back edge of a US M9

Ball Finial

see finial

 

Ball finial on the cross guard of a brass hilted Italian 1891

 

Ball finial on the bottom on a Norwegian M44 scabbard

Bandsman Often used to describe sword bayonets that have been modified to not fit on a weapon (and often plated). Bandsmen carried no weapons and as such would not need a mountable bayonet
Bannerman

A weapons dealer in the USA at the beginning of the 1900’s they bought and sold large numbers of weapons including bayonets and matched blade with rifles for sale to foreign countries wanting to update their military, often these were not originally linked and some modifications may have been made. They also used bayonets (mainly sockets) to make candelabras, wall scones etc. which were sold to the public. The most noted of their sales was of US Krag bayonets placed in picket pin scabbards and sold as bayonets for the cavalry carbine, which was completely erroneous as the cavalry carbine had no fittings to take a bayonet.

 

Top example is an umbrella stand made using French 1866 Chassepot and 1874 Gras bayonets

 

2nd example is a coat hanger using French 1874 Gras's and crossguards from the same

 

The commonly miss represented Picket Pin scabbard for the Krag bayonet is actually a carrier for a stake (pin) with which when driven into the ground a horse could be tied to

Bar on Band

UK Martini Henry bayonets from the 1850's came with originally the bayonet stud directly on the barrel (bar on barrel)and later models had it attached to a band holding the barrel to the stock, this gave a slight gap between the muzzle ring and the hilt.

Bar on Barrel

UK Martini Henry bayonets from the 1850's came with originally the bayonet stud directly on the barrel giving no gap between the muzzle ring and the hilt, later models had the stud moved to a barrel ring giving the bar on band description

Barrel ring

 

More commonly called the muzzle ring. Note that all bayonets do not necessarily mount with a ring around the barrel, the UK 1907 uses a stud under the barrel, it appears to be a muzzle ring but isn't.

(The) Bayonet Book

Written by John Watts and Peter White, this has been a standard reference book since its writing in 1975 for bayonet collectors, hard to find and not cheap it is still a standard work to have in any bayonet library. See my bibliography pages for more books

Bayonet Knot See troddel
Bead Blasting  

Using beads instead of sand as a cleaning medium this gives a much softer finish. Used as either a final finish or before treatment, to give a slightly textured finish.

Beaked

A distinctive pommel design that appears to be a birds head very popular with German bayonets from the mid 1800's up to the end of WWII

 

German 1860

Bend Mark An acceptance mark on British and commonwealth bayonets from about 1860 to WWII, it indicates the side of the bayonet that was placed in tension during an acceptance bend test of the bayonet blade. It consists of an X mark

the X bend mark on an Australian No1 bayonet
Bess A socket bayonet for the UK Brown Bess rifle, this type of bayonet was used by many countries and was in use in various forms for a long period of time from the elate 1700's

Early UK Bess socket

Black

 

Certain bluing treatments can give a very shiny black finish.

Blade

The part of a bayonet that is used for cutting or stabbing.

 

Blade from a Chinese type 56 bayonet

Blade Slot

A hole in a modern bayonet blade that is used in conjunction with the stud on the scabbard to turn the bayonet scabbard combination into a set of wire cutters

 

Blade slot from a East German KM87 with scale markings as well

Blood corrosion marks

 

Typically the marks left from the scabbard springs is attributed to blood, rather than simple corrosion from contact of the blade with the springs in the scabbard.

Blood Grooves

 

See Fullers

Bluing

A protective oxide coating put onto steel to help reduce corrosion. It is either chemically applied (cold bluing) or by heating with or without chemicals in a furnace.

Example is a UK 1903 and shows bluing on the crossguard and for the beginning part of the ricasso

Bottle opener

In order to prevent damage to rifle magazines a bottle opener was added to may bayonet designs in the late 60's onwards. If memory serves me right the first such additions were to the Israeli UZI

The top example is from a German commercial KCB bayonet

The lower example is from the US M9

Bolo

A bayonet with a concave sharpened edge, the most common of these being the Spanish 1941 and the 1959 CETME

Bowie Blade

Normally used to describe a blade point profile that has a heavily ground false edge leading to a concave shape to the back edge of the bayonet (UK No9), the description comes from its resemblance to the Bowie blade made famous by Jim Bowie. The American Krag Bowie blade bayonet used a blade profile similar to those attributed to the original blade design with a heavy blade with a large front curved edge and a concave false edge. Some times called a drop point

Czech VZ24 with Bowie point

Bread Bag Frog A German bayonet frog made from a coarse hessian material

Brass Hilt

During the mid to late 1800's brass hilts on sword type bayonets were very popular, it fell into disuse probably due to a combination of cleaning needs and the price of copper used to make brass with the wide scale introduction of electrical power and the needs for wire etc.

Example shown is the Italian 1870

Brazed

Two metal parts are joined using a copper based solder that melts at 3-400º and when cooled joins the two parts like a glue. There is no melting of the pieces being brazed. Often used to attach pommels to tangs, and frog studs to scabbards, but also for crossguards. It is most obvious in Turked bayonets where the joints are not cleaned afterwards.

 

Example is from a Turked German Ersatz with a new cross guard brazed into place

Bubba’d

 

A derogatory term for bayonets modified by non military people for their own use, or in order to pass off a bayonet as a rare/prototype/… for monetary gain. Often the workmanship is poor

Bushed An addition to the ID of a muzzle ring to reduce its diameter either to fit a smaller barrel or to prevent it being mounted on a firearm

A UK 1856 cut down for cadet issue and bushed to prevent it being mounted

Butcher Blade

Used to describe the German 98/05 bayonet with a point wider than the blade width at the cross guard, resembling a heavy butcher knife in profile)

for more examples see the dedicated pages

Butt see Pommel
Cadet A bayonet reduced in size for use by cadets in military schools, these are either shortened issue bayonets or could be new made items scaled down to fit the age of the cadets

UK cadet bayonet made by shortening a UK 1856
Can A scabbard marking found on WWII German 84/98s
Carter

Anthony Carter was a large dealer/collector of bayonets in the UK , he wrote several books which are still considered to be the definitive work on the subject. See the bibliography for a list of his books

Cast  

A part is made by heating metal until it is liquid and pouring it into a mold. Once cold the shape may be machined and polished to the final shape. Used to produce hilts, cross guards and other parts

example is a cast hilt on a WWI Ersatz bayonet.

Catch

A locking mechanism to hold a bayonet onto a lug on the rifle.

 

Normally at the rear of a bayonet on the pommel the early AK47 had a forward catch below the muzzle ring, this new production Rumanian bayonet for these older rifles has the same forward catch location

 

2nd example is a crude catch on a WWI German Ersatz

 

American twin lever catch on an M7 style bayonet

Cavalry Strap An additional strap on a bayonet frog to hold the blade into the frog itself, originally found on Cavalry bayonets

Example is an Argentinean Frog
CBF

Refers to the number ascribed to a frog in Carter’s Belt Frog book which identified over 500 frogs.

CEB  

Refers to the identification number for an ersatz bayonet in Carter’s Ersatz Bayonet reference book. Used by most collectors when identifying Ersatz bayonets. 

Center point A blade style in which the point of the blade is on the center lien of the bayonet, normally seen on double edged blades it can often be found on blades reduced in length

Reduced in length US M1 bayonet has a center point

Ceremonial

An issue bayonet polished or chrome/nickel plated for wear by color guards or similar for ceremonial use, also known as parade

To[ chromed US Krag bayonet with replacement grips

Danish 1867 with no press stud and a filled muzzle ring

Chamfer

A grinding of a slot to give a beveled appearance, the most common example is the hilt slot on an 1866 Chassepot bayonet in which the slot ahs been chamfered to fit the stud on the rifle.

Chape

A metal cap protecting the bottom of a scabbard from wear or penetration of the bayonet point.

Picture is of a US 1905 scabbard with added chape

Choil

the transition area between the blade of a bayonet and the ricasso/tang seen here on a US M9

Chromium Plated

Many dress blades are chromium plated electrolytically to present a bright shiny finish that needs no polishing etc. Unfortunately easy and cheaply done many blades are plated for non military organizations or private individuals. Plated does not normally increase value and can detract from the collectability of an  item. Note many Dress/walking out blades are commercial purchases and are plated, in these case the quality of the plating is very important.

Example is a German 98/05

Clearance Hole


A hole found in the hilt or pommel of bayonets placed to allow the end of the hole in the pommel into which the cleaning rod slid allowing it to be cleared of debris etc. or to clean the end of the stud slot of the lock that would have prevented the bayonet locking onto the rifle, often mistakenly called an Oil hole.

top picture the square hole in a German 71/84 close to the crossguard - cleaning the cleaning rod hole

Bottom Picture UK 1907 with hole in the pommel - cleaning the slot

Cleaning Hole

 

see Clearance hole

The cleaning hole in a Bavarian 98/05 is round and not square as in all other 98/05's

Clip Point   The point of the blade is not in line with the back of the blade nor its center line but above the mid line. Sometimes used to describe Bowie blades

Cocks Comb

A decorative device on the top of the muzzle ring on many 1800's sword bayonets, that looks like a cockerels comb. Often called a sight, this is incorrect as most of these blades attached to the side of a musket (to allow access to the ram rod/cleaning rod) and the comb would actually lay alongside the barrel and not on top.

 

Example is of a cocks comb on an India State bayonet

Commemorative A bayonet modified by etching, engraving, plating etc to commemorate a special event or time.

Example a commercial commemorative for the Iraq action in 2003

Commercial

A bayonet made for commercial sale rather than as a direct military contract. Sometimes these are made by the same company that makes official contract pieces and are indistinguishable from the "real" items, more often they will be etched, colored, have additional/spurious markings. Many others are copies of issued items made by companies with no ties to the official manufacturers, often these then get sold on as trials, prototypes, or rare!

 

Top picture a pair of blades sold by Smith and Wesson made in Taiwan/China to copy the US M9 bayonet

 

2nd Picture a commercial release by LanCay who make the issue US M9, this one has a desert tan finish which is not a military issue it is marked identically to issue pieces and made on the same equipment the only difference is the color

Cross guard

 

Separating the blade from the hilt, the cross guard typically has the muzzle ring mounted on it, and may or may not have a Quillion as well.

Cross guard on a Dutch Beaumont.

Cruciform

Simply a bayonet with a blade style that has a cross shaped profile

 

Swiss 1900 with cruciform blade

Cutlass Bayonet

Simply a bayonet with a blade style similar to those of a cutlass, i.e. a heavy single curved blade (UK Navy) with a heavy basket hilt

Cutter plate

A part of the wire cutter assembly added to modern bayonets, it acts as the second shearing portion of the action providing the 2nd cutting face against which the bayonet blade cuts.

 

Example is a East German AKM

Cypher A stamp used to indicate the ruler under which the bayonet was made

Spine Cypher mark on a German 84/98 for Wilhelm

D Guard

A D shaped metal band linking the pommel to the cross guard giving a guard for the back of the hand.

UK 1876 Artillery

De Milled

A bayonet that has been modified such that it will no longer attach to a firearm, this is either for public sale or to be used purely as a side arm

 

Top example is a AK47 bayonet

 

2nd example is a German 98/05 with V slotted hilt the same modification can be found with the press catch still in place, it was designed to prevent mounting the bayonet and used on side arms under the Treaty of Versailles after WWI

 

3rd example is the extreme with the blade cut to prevent its use, in this case an uncommon USMC marked US M9 bayonet blade

De-ringed   A bayonet from which the muzzle ring has been removed. These are normally German from WWII and are blades taken by the Germans and used as side arms or as issue pieces. The ring was removed to resemble the standard issue items that had no muzzle ring from scratch
Czech VZ24 with muzzle ring removed for German use in WWII
Defense Nationale A French bayonet made during the height of the Franco Prussian war, they typically use standard 1866 Chassepot hilts with cut down and modified sword blades instead of the standard Yataghan style. It also covers Chassepots with a simplified construction that miss the bottom rivet, and weapons forced into service such as Egyptian Remington’s with a style similar to the 1866 but with a different slot configuration

Example uses a triple fullered sword blade on an 1866 chassepot hilt
DOT Makers mark on Czech VZ24's made under German occupation during WWII

Double edged

A blade on which both sides of the blade are sharpened, this typically implies a symmetrical blade shape

Dutch 1895 cavalry

Double fullered A blade with two fullers on the same side of the blade

A fantasy blade out of China based on the Chinese T81 blade style
Double Ring (1) A double muzzle ring to fit a twin barreled rifle

Top example a French 1866 fitted with double ring to allow fitting on double barreled hunting rifle

2nd example the Jacobs double barreled rifle bayonet
Double Ring (2)   A muzzle ring with two diameters allowing it to fit on two different rifles, the most common of these are WWI German Ersatz bayonets with a ring design to allow it to fit on the 1888 rifle (that needed a ring to mount the bayonet) and the 1898 (which really didn't)
Double Ring (3) A bayonet with two separate "muzzle" rings

Top example a Mexican 1912 modified to fit the FN FAL rifle

Dress Bayonet

A bayonet intended to be used as part of a dress uniform, rather than as a weapon. Based on the current issue blade they are often lighter versions or devoid of locking catches and or slots that would allow them to be mounted on a rifle. Most tend to be Chromed or polished

Example is a Czech VZ24 with no slot or catch to allow it to be mounted.

Drill Another term for a training bayonet, used by Uk and commonwealth countries. These were standard bayonets with the tips blunted and typically marked DP

UK No4 marked for Drill Purpose
EBAY   The internet suction site from which many collectors get their items, possibly the best place to value more common items as you can compare condition etc.
Electric pencil   A vibrating tool used to scribe serial numbers into bayonets. Very common in eastern European countries on refurbs, re issues and new issue items.
Engraved   Dress and presentation bayonets are often engraved to show the dates or purpose of the presentation (i.e. a prize etc.), it may also be engraving added to the bayonet in remembrance of service or a particular action.
Epee   French term for a long thin blade designed for thrusting, blades are cruciform (1886 Lebel) or T backed (1874 Gras)

Ersatz

Originally the WWI German “emergency” bayonets made with all steel (and occasionally brass) hilts at the beginning of the war. It has been extended to cover Italian, Austrian, Russian, Chinese and Turkish bayonets made as war time expedients or in the case of the Turkish and Chinese bayonets often with ex WWI German bayonets modified to fit different weapons

Italian Carcano "ersatz" with brass hilt

for German Ersatz see the dedicated pages

Ersoc

A term coined to identify German WWI ersatz bayonets made using socket bayonet blades

Example Ersoc with UK 1853 blade

Etched

Etching uses acids to attack the surface of the metal and by using stencils can be used to produce ornate pictures and inscriptions on a bayonet. Very popular with German dress bayonets in which one or both sides of the bayonet were etched and in some cases blued and gold plated to produce beautiful works of art.

Etched blades also cover fakes produced from issue WWII German 84/98’s with inscriptions typically to SS Luftwaffe, and Naval units. Any 84/98 with a makers mark or a serial and etching is a post war fake. Originally made in England in the 70’s to very high standards on mint matching bayonets, more recently they have come out of Eastern Europe from mismatched blades of lower quality. They are often sold with fantastic stories of grand fathers picking them up in Berlin bunkers etc. they are all fakes see ****

Top example is an etched design on a German Pioneer dress bayonet which is correct and period etched

2nd Example is a fake etching on an 84/98 this one with secondary bluing

External spring

Typically a log flat spring steel strip that reacts against the back of the press stud of the locking catch.

Example Italian TA bayonet with long external spring

External Coil spring   A coil spring built into the bayonet catch that is outside the pommel, few bayonets were made with this form of catch as internal catches are less prone to clogging etc.
Example Austrian 1867 with external coil spring in large press stud
FAG A WWI maker of scabbards for German Ersatz bayonets
Example FAG scabbard

Fake

A bayonet altered or made to look like a rare or collectable piece, many of these start as reproductions but get aged or marked and sold as originals see the dedicated section dedicated section

False edge

A short length on the back of the blade that is sharpened from the point backwards, but which does not extend the full length of the blade

Example False edge ground onto the point of a UK 1907

Fantasy

A bayonet made to look like a rare or collectable variation of a bayonet that never existed, usually by adding spurious markings or by addition of sawbacks etc.

An Indian SLR bayonet with a spurious added sawback

For more examples see the dedicated section

Feathered

 

A form of decoration on mid 1800's US brass hilt bayonets in which the gripping area was cut to resemble feathers.

Example a 1870 US Navy

Ferrule   A miss used term for the rings on either end of a socket bayonet, a Ferrule is actually an attachment device used to fix something by clamping (for example the metal ring holding an eraser on a pencil.
Fighting knife A term used to describe many shortened and modified bayonets, it is often hard to determine if these are "real" or Bubba'd as most are un official. Some types turn up in numbers large enough to suggest that they may have been made a a unit armory or other manufacturer rather than home made. Without provenance beware of tales

Example is a shortened and modified German 84/98
Film A bayonet made as a film prop or modified to act as such

See my dedicated page

Film prop bayonet made for the film "All quiet on the western front"

Finial

An architectural term for a for a device to emphasize a top or corner of a building or structure. For bayonets it is used to cover the "ball" often found on the base of an all metal scabbard, or on the end of a quillion. they can also be found on the top of muzzle rings

 

Austrian 1867

Fixed Folding A folding bayonet permanently affixed to the rifle

Example is a Russian M44 folding bayonet for a carbine
Flash Guard A strip of steel added to the top surface of a bayonet to prevent damage due to the gases from the barrel. Normally seen on German bayonets of WWI and WWII due to the use of short barreled Carbine type Mauser rifles, whose barrels finished mid length of the hilt. Also seen on Polish Mauser bayonets
Example is a 98/05 transitional sawback.
Flash Hider Normally directly fitted to the end of a rifle barrel to reduce the flash released by the firing of a cartridge. Some bayonets have had a flash hider added to the bayonet. Other bayonets have very large muzzle rings to mount of rifles with the flash hider added

UK FN FAL trials bayonet with added flash hider to the top cross guard
Flat Grind   the sharp edge of the blade is two flat surfaces meeting at the edge, a simple grind to produce

Folding

A bayonet designed to allow the blade to fold back either under or along the rifle barrel. These can be either fixed or removable

Italian Berretta SMG bayonet

Forged blade The rough final shape is produced by hammering a white hot blank until the shape is achieved, this normally gives a good tough blade

Example shows an incomplete 1891 Mosin Nagant socket, clearly visible is the line formed from the meeting of the dies used in the forging
Forge Welding   Used in the production of early socket bayonets the two parts to be joined are heated to white hot and hammered together until they are effectively one piece. Used mainly to join a high strength blade to a the lower strength socket assembly.

Frog

Made of leather or cloth this allows a scabbard to be attached to a belt or strap on the soldier

This early reproduction frog shows its resemblance to the animal from which its name is taken

for more frogs see the dedicated page

Frog stud





A “button” on the scabbard used to fix the scabbard into a frog, these can be:

Acorn - Argentinean 1879

 

Oval - UK 1907

Round - UK 1907

L shaped -  Czech VZ33

 

Shield - German 84/98

Fuller

A forged or ground indentation running along the length of the blade, this allows for weight savings without loosing stiffness (resistance to bending) of the blade.

Also known as blood grooves, and erroneously attributed with a reduction in suction allowing the blade to be removed from a penetration more easily, or to maximize injury.

Mexican Remington bayonet

Gottscho A WWI German bayonet with a long parallel blade and a light bulb style makers mark, unlike any other production blade but of better workmanship than the Ersatz bayonets that were of the same period. Has distinctive ridges one piece grips

Grey Ghost

A name given to the phosphate coated German WWII 84/98's, which have a distinctive pale gray finish

Grips

Wood, rubber, plastic, or leather additions  to the hilt added for grip and to fill in the area between the crossguard and the pommel, the grips are usually bolted or riveted together through the tang, but cylindrical grips may be held in by compression between the cross guard and the pommel (US M4, M9)

These have also been called scales

Hungarian 1895 with bone grips

Man made grips on German dress K98

One piece tubular wood grip on a Hungarian 1935

Wooden grips added to an all steel ersatz original bayonet

Brass grips on a UK 1907

Ivory grips on a modified Italian Carcano

Leather grips

Perspex grips

Horn grips

Antler grips

Ground   A process of metal removal carried out by use of a grind stone, used to produce blades, edges, fullers and final dimensions on components. Typically  this was carried out by hand leading to variations between pieces so produced.

Hand guard

 

another term for the crossguard

Handle A socket bayonet may be equipped with a separate handle that mounts like the musket/rifle with the bayonet allowing the bayonet to be used as a hand weapon or as a digging/probing implement.

The UK entrenching tool handle was fitted with a bayonet mount from the UK No4 rifle allowing the No4 bayonet to attached to be used a s a mien probe

Hanoverian Spring

 

a short curved spring fitted to the end of a musket to lock a socket bayonet onto the rifle, instead of the more normal situation where the bayonet carries the lock.

High ears With the 1898 Mauser the Germans removed the muzzle ring from the bayonet and used a longer rifle stud to fix the bayonet to the rifle. Early bayonets for the rifle high ears on the front of the crossguard to fit the bottom of the barrel, When existing muzzle rings were removed, partial removal left the same high ears.

High ears on a Czech VZ24 with partial removal of the muzzle ring for German WWII use

Hilt

The gripping part of a bayonet behind the cross guard. Typically these are designed to allow the bayonet to be used as a weapon or tool when not mounted on a rifle. Some early socket bayonets came with adaptors that fitted into the socket to give the bayonet a handle/ Hilt.

Saudi Arabian G3 bayonet

Hollow Ground   The edge of the blade is ground with a concave surface that keeps a thinner section to the edge as it wears, giving a longer lasting sharp edge
Hump Backed A style of hilt that has two narrower sections producing a hump in the center of the grips

Irish 1904
Integral Frog The frog is built into the scabbard and is not removable
Dutch 1895 with integral frog

Internal spring

 

The spring for the locking catch was a coil spring or similar  built into the press stud

Inverted blade

A bayonet typically has its sharp edge facing down from the muzzle ring, placing the edge away from the barrel. The Austrian 1895 and Czech VZ23 andVZ24 bayonets have the blades with the edge facing the barrel. There are several theories revolving around withdrawing blades from bodies, however it is more likely that this was to cut down stresses on the end of the barrel due to the exhaust gases reaction to the blunt edge of the blade. This may also be to cut down movement between shots, allowing fast follow ups.

Janzen's

A book by Janzen covering his collection, it makes a good starter book on bayonets (for others see the bibliography)

Khyle lock

A locking method for sockets that uses a sprung lock plate attached to the socket itself to fix the socket to the barrel

Danish Khyle fitted 1854

Knife bayonet

A bayonet with a short blade typically less than 250mm long. The German 71/84 is accepted as the first true knife bayonet, although the American Dahlgren was earlier

Knuckle Bow

A strip of metal linking the cross guard to the pommel

 

Example is a commercial knuckle bow added to a US M11

Knot A decorative addition to a bayonet used to indicate the unit of the wearer
Knot Ring A ring added to a bayonet to allow a bayonet knot to be added to the blade

Ring added to pommel of Rumanian 1895
Knurled A machining method that leaves a fine cross hatched surface to aid grip. Found on Hilts, and catches
The example is a Swedish 1896 with its finely knurled hilt

Kukri

A socket bayonet using a blade shape similar to the Nepalese Kukri knives. Fakes are made with Kukri blades and UK 1853  sockets, the original bayonets had a slimmer less curved blade

Fantasy Kukri bayonet

Latch lock

(Italian M38)

Locket

A metal addition on leather scabbards to stiffen and protect the throat. This will often have a frog stud or staple to fix the scabbard in a frog

Example is from the scabbard for an Italian TS bayonet

Locking Ring

A rotating ring on a socket bayonet that turns to allow the stud/sight to pass and is then turned to lock behind the stud and hold the bayonet onto the rifle

 

Locking ring on a UK 1853

Lug

Normally a T shaped bar fitted to the rifle that slides into a slot in the hilt of a bayonet and combined with the muzzle ring fixes the bayonet to the rifle. On German 1898 Mauser's this lug is extended to 40mm and became the sole support for the bayonets designed for it. Also the Czechoslovakians made the M58 bayonet without a muzzle ring, and used a unique puss forward locking system.

 

Example is from a training UK SMLE nose cap the lug is at the left in front of the swivel

Machete bayonet

A bayonet with a machete shaped blade

Example is an Australian Paratrooper

Makers Mark


A marking typically on the Ricasso that indicates the maker of the bayonet, these can be the full name, a logo or a code

Top picture is the trade mark on a WWI German 84/98

 

  2nd picture is a Arsenal marking on a Yugoslavian M24 bayonet

 

The 3rd is a coded marking indicating a 1935 made (G) German 84/98 made by Weyersberg Kirschbaum and Cie

 

4th is a Pakistani No9 made by MIL

Mint

A bayonet in the condition it came out of the factory, that has never been used and ahs no wear or tear, this will often fetch a premium from many collectors.

A near mint UK 1903

Modified

A bayonet that has been altered to fit a different weapon to which it was originally designed

the example is of a French 187 modified for Chilean use by changing the muzzle ring and shaving the pommel to allow it to fit another rifle

Mortise

the slot in a socket through which the lug or sight is fed

Uruguayan 1900

Mouth Piece

The top of a scabbard see also throat

Top is a full mouth piece off of a KS98 dress scabbard

The lower is a mouth piece from a French 1874

Musicians   see bandsman

Muzzle ring

The section of the cross guard designed to go over the rifle barrel to fix the bayonet to the rifle, this term is also used for bayonets like the UK 1907 which actually locate on stud below the barrel and not onto the barrel itself.

Top picture is the muzzle ring on a Uruguayan 1900

 

2nd picture is of UK 1907 which actually mounts on a stud below the muzzle

NCO A Non Commissioned Officer (sergeants etc) often had different bayonet than the general troops. During the socket periods they often had sword bayonets rather than sockets. In the German and Austrian armies they had special bayonets, the Germans used sawbacks to designate NCO's during WWI, the Austrians added a quillion and a pommel ring to accept a knot (or troddel)

Austrian 1895 with quillion, and pommel ring with knot attached
Obverse For standardization a bayonet is photographed with the hilt to the left, the blade to the right and the muzzle ring upwards. This removes all requirements to know how the blade is mounted on the rifle, for example front and back do not work for sword bayonets which were typically mounted on he side of the weapon meaning top and bottom would be more appropriate (but then which side was it mounted?) see also Reverse

Oil Hole

An incorrect description of the cleaning/clearance hole found on the hilt or pommel of bayonets.

Parade

 

See ceremonial

Phosphorizing

A protective coating applied to metal surfaces, typically gives a matt finish

Phosphorized UK 1888 issued to the Hong Kong Police

Pioneer bayonet (1)

Typically a heavy bayonet with a saw back, designed to give pioneers and engineers a tool for cutting brush and timber to build emplacements (German 89/02. Belgian Terssan). These bayonets are typically large and heavy with a saw back and heavy blade

Top Picture shows a German 98/02

Lower picture is a Belgian 1868 Terssan

Pioneer bayonet (2) A name used for dress commercial bayonets based on the German 84/98 style
Pipe Back   The back of the blade is round/tubular and stands proud of the blade itself.
Pistol Bayonet A bayonet designed to be fitted on a pistol, more common on early single shot pistols there are several different examples either folding of removable.

Top example is modern Laserlyte to fit on the modern rail fitted pistols

UK Pritchard Greener bayonet for the Webley MkVI revolver

Plocket

 

A term adopted to describe a cross between the Plug and Socket bayonets in which the hilt of the bayonet had a socket attached to hilt to allow it to be mounted on the gun.

Plug Bayonet

The first bayonets were made with round handles with a blade extending form them. The handle was pushed into the musket barrel effectively turning the musket into a pike. Early guns were slow to reload and once fired the plug at least gave the soldier an extended weapon if they did not have time to reload.

Many plug bayonets were made to fit hunting rifles, and can be very ornate.

A Spanish Hunting Plug (courtesy of Jim Maddox)

Polished (1) An original bayonet finish in which the metal is buffed to a mirror finish

New Zealand Snider
Polished (2) Overdone clean in which the bayonet has been polished fully or partially removing original markings etc. This can seriously affect the value of the bayonet as it is no longer considered correct by bayonet collectors. Although the original Brass hilt would have shone when new, collectors prefer the age of patina on the piece, clean but not polished

Example is an over polished UK Jacobs' bayonet

Pommel

The end of the hilt which normally contains the locking mechanism for fixing the bayonet to the rifle

Example is an unknown Portuguese sword bayonet

Portapee   See Knot
Presentation A bayonet made or modified to be given as a presentation/commemoration specimen

Czech VZ58 presentation with wooden grips, chrome plating and dedicated stand

Press stud

The button typically on the pommel of a bayonet that operates the spring catch that locks the bayonet onto a rifle.

Portuguese 84/98

Quill backed

In this design of blade there is an extension of the blade at the point above the continuation of the spine. This allows for the spine to give its stiffness benefits to the full length of the blade but allows an additional cutting edge above this. This was used by German designs that had long narrow blades i.e. German 1871

Example is a German 71/98 a S71 modified to fit the 1898 Mauser by adding a new hilt

Quillion

A forward swept “hook” on the cross guard, often erroneously said to be used to trap an opponents blade in fighting allowing you to break his blade. The quillion is actually there to allow rifles to be stacked with a bayonet fitted, or to hang the bayonet in stores

Full quillion on a Japanese Marine Arisaka

Rack Number   An individual number given a bayonet for control purposes within a unit
Reamed A method or enlarging a hole by removing material from its inner diameter to fit another large barreled weapon

A reamed muzzle ring on a French 1874 Gras

Refurbished

Bayonets taken from service and arsenal cleaned and repaired and typically fully refinished for future sale. This results in bayonets that look mint, but which are often in finishes that they did not originally come with. Very common with eastern European bayonets

Yugoslavian refurb of a German 84/98

Reinforcing Collar

A heavy band of material strengthening the end of a socket

 

Collar on a British 1843 socket bayonet

Relic A bayonet in poor condition usually heavily corroded and possibly missing parts. Usually of little value except as a place holder till funds or circumstances allow the purchase of a good condition example.
Top example is an Argentine 1879

Reproduction

A bayonet made to look like an original bayonet, and sold as a reproduction for use by re-enactors or for decoration and not as the real item. Often these are then sold on after aging or modifying as the real item as a fake

 

Example is a prototype bayonet for the UK Sten SMG

Reverse The opposite side of a bayonet to the obverse

Ricasso

The flat area on a blade between the cross guard and the edged section of the blade, this are typically carries the makes marks and serial numbers etc.

Ricasso with faint makers mark on a German K98 dress blade

Rivet A method used to join parts using a pin that is deformed at each end after passing through a hole in the parts to be joined, often used for holding grips/pommels and crossguard. These are often ground flush and may be difficult to see

Top picture is the rivets holding the crossguard on an Iranian 22/98

2nd is a large steel rivet in the brass grips of a German 1860

3rd are riveted leather grips on a UK 1856

Rivets in German 84/98 cross guard revealed by over stamping
Round Slot A pommel mortis with a circular hole

Top example is a UK No8

Bottom example is a UK 1870 Whitworth

Saber Bayonet

 

Simply a bayonet with a blade style similar to those of a saber, i.e. a heavy single curved blade (UK Navy)

Example Lightened version of the UK 1859

Sawback

A bayonet that has a saw cut into its spine. These were popular in the late 1800’s up till WWI (and have now come back again) as indicators of rank (NCO’s got the saw back, normal troops got the plain back) or for engineers to be used to cut barbed wire posts of build defenses.

Propaganda against the Germans in WWI, stating the design was to produce terrible wounds etc. saw the saw backs cease to be used.

Example is of a German WWI Ersatz bayonet

Sawback removed

With the bad publicity for saw backs the Germans removed them from front line service, and removed the sawback by grinding and re issued to blades to support units. These are conversions and not new manufactured pieces

German KS98 with sawback removed, leaving the distinctive back edge

Scabbard

The sheath for a bayonet, it may be leather with metal fittings (steel or brass), wood with either leather or cloth covering, or all steel. It is meant to protect the blade and allow it to be safely carried by the soldier on his belt or webbing, usually by a frog that links the scabbard to the belt/webbing

 

Brass mounted scabbard on a shortened UK Lancaster bayonet

Scabbard lock

An addition to the bayonet to lock the blade securely into the scabbard introduced on the Krag bayonets used by The Norwegians it was a standard fit on American 1905 bayonets

The small stud below the muzzle ring on this Marine Arisaka locks the blade into its scabbard

Scabbard Mounts   Used to cover the chape and locket on a scabbard

Scabbard spring

 

A wavy steel spring attached to the throat of a scabbard to hold the bayonet into the scabbard and prevent it rattling. These are often described as blade sharpeners (as they don’t touch the edge this is obviously not possible).

The corrosion damage to blades; during storage; due to these springs often leaves a pair of corroded areas on the blade, which many then explain as blood corrosion!

Scales (1)

 

The term was used in some early American books to refer to the grips on a bayonet .See GRIPS

Scales (2)

A description of the hilt decoration on several US brass hilted bayonets of the mid 1800's in which the brass was cut to represent fish scales.

Scales (3)

The trade mark of Alex Coppell in Germany, which was of a set of weighing pans (scales)

 

Example is a WWII commercial German 84/98

Screwbolts   The combination of nuts and screws used to secure the grips on a bayonet

Scythe

 

A rare Russian bayonet designed for the 1891 Mosin Nagant rifle, the blade was designed to have a wire cutting addition and had a concave shaped edge.

Serial Number (1) A number given to a bayonet during production to indicate its location in a run, most commonly seen on German 84/98's during the 3rd Reich period

None matching serials on a German 84/98, the numbers are from 1 to 9999 (typically there is one exception) with a letter added to indicate each 10,000, a, b, c etc.)
Serial Number (2) A number given to a bayonet to tie it to a similarly marked rifle and the pair would then be issued together

Irish No9 with matching serials that tied it to the issued rifle
Serration A series of overlapping concave grindings in a blade

US OKC-3C

Sharpening Stone


Bayonets were note originally issued sharpened (in the majority of cases) and sharpening was not allowed. More recently the bayonet has become the utility knife for the soldiers and not just a blade to go on the rifle and are issued in the sharpened condition, many bayonets have had sharpening stones added to the scabbard to allow the soldier to redress his blade

 

Top picture is a stone on the rear of a OKC-3S scabbard

 

Lower picture is the diamond impregnated pad on the rear of the Italian Extrema Ratio scabbard, the fakes make do with a sheet of sand paper!

Shaved Material is removed to allow the weapon to mount on a different rifle to which it was designed, this is normally carried out on the pommel to adjust the muzzle ring to locking stud height

The shaved hilt on a UVF Gras to allow it to mount on a 98 Mauser

Shoulder

The widest part of a socket bayonet blade where it transitions from the blade to the elbow

 

Shoulder on a UK Bess bayonet

Single edged

A blade which has only one “sharpened” edge

Polish M30 bayonet

Sleeved

To allow a bayonet to fit a different rifle the muzzle ring may have to be reduced in size, this was often achieved by fitting a sleeve of metal into the existing ring. This was common in the e1800's as the caliber of the weapons decreased with the change from black powder to cordite propellants and cartridges rather than muzzle loading see also bushed

Slot See mortise
Slotted Typically refers to the design of the screwbolts used to attach grips to the bayonet. These have Slot that may or may not cross the threads

Slotted nut on a German KS98 dress bayonet catch
Sneak A term used for German 84/98's found devoid of all markings etc. Supposedly these were made to circumnavigate the Treaty of Versailles during the early part of Hitler's rule of Germany

Socket bayonet

A socket that goes around the barrel of the rifle/musket and may or may not lock with a locking ring or spring arrangement onto a purpose made stud or the front sight of the weapon. The blade is typically a triangular spike, but all blade shapes and styles have been used. The blades are attached to the socket by means of an L shaped bar, removing the blade from the vicinity of the barrel to allow reloading with the socket attached.

Top example is a rare FN FAL bayonet modified to fit the AK47 by South Africa

2nd example is a Belgian toy bayonet with a socket attached to a sword to allow fitting on a rifle

Spear point

A bayonet with a blade with a point central to its width

 

US M1

Spine

The thickest part of a blade, typically this is the back edge of a bayonet but with double edged and some other blade styles the spine may be within the body of the blade itself.

 

Illustration is the central spines on various UK 1888's

Split Socket

A socket that is split length ways to allow it to fit slightly varying diameter barrels

 

Example is a UK 1853 with split socket and wing nut adaptor to allow the bayonet to fit a variety of muskets in the film business

Staple (1)

A hoop shaped ring attached to the top of the scabbard through which a strap on a frog is passed to hold the scabbard in the frog.

Staple (2) A metal staple used to hold parts together, i.e. metal parts to Leather scabbard bodies

Example is a staple in the Chape of a US 1917 scabbard
Stepped Muzzle Ring The muzzle ring is mounted ahead or behind the crossguard producing a step

Example is of a UK 1887
Stopped Fuller A fuller that with a distinct start and stop
Swept Back Quillion A quillion that curves back over the hilt

Transvaal Mauser
Swept forward Quillion A quillion that curves forward over the blade (the more typical style

Turkish 1903

Sword Bayonet

A bayonet with a blade length typically over 300mm

Illustration is a UK 1855 Lancaster

Tang

The continuation of the blade which extends though the grips/hilt to the pommel.

Rough tapered Tang of an Afghanistan 1907 copy

Tanto Blade A blade shape based on the angular style of the Japanese Tanto knives, the blade has 3 distinct straight edges all sharpened

US Trials blade

T-Backed

The blade section for these bayonets is T shaped. This shape gives great stiffness with minimum weight. First used by the French for their 1874 Gras, the blade shape was used by Many countries

Illustration is of a Dutch 1895

Throat

The top of a scabbard into which the blade is inserted

Throat screw Screw(s) used to fix the throat to the scabbard body

example is a German 84/98 scabbard
Transitional A bayonet showing features of two different models of bayonet. Possibly the most common are German 98/05's with High eared muzzle rings and flashguards (aA and nA features) and other variations

Illustration is a German 98/05 with high ears (aA) and flashguard (nA)
Transvaal Mauser A bayonet made for the Transvaal in Southern Africa. A vey distinctive bayonet with a history that is not fully clear
Troddel A decorative knot attached to a bayonet to denote unit see knot

Troddel Ring A ring added to a bayonet to allow a troddel (knot) to be attached

Austrian 1895 with very wide ring

T slot

The slot on the rear of the pommel into which a bar attached to the rifle slides the slot looks like and inverted T

T slot on an Israeli Gallil

TO slot

Like the T slot but with an additional circular hole under the head of the T, this is to allow the cleaning rod of the rifle to fit up inside the hilt of the bayonet when it is mounted on the rifle.

Training Bayonet A blunted or protected bayonet, or a purpose made bayonet in rubber or sprung loaded designed to be mounted on a rifle or replica for training purposes in hand to hand combat with the bayonet attached.

Top example is a Rubber trainer used on child's training rifles in the 50 and60's in the US

2nd example is a Uruguayan conversion of the Dauedeteau bayonet to have a sprung loaded blade
Transverse Slot A mortise slot running transverse to the blade hilt, bayonet is mounted by fitting the muzzle ring an than rotating the bayonet over the stud
Example is Brass hilted Italian TS

True Edge

The "sharp" edge of the bayonet, typically on the opposite side of the bayonet to the muzzle ring

 

The sharp side of an early US M9

Trowel

 

In an attempt to allow the bayonet to be more useful to the soldier the blade shape was like a trowel, the intent being that the soldier could use the bayonet for digging as well as a bayonet. Several designs were trialed but most never made it past the trials.

Turked

A term to describe Turkish refurbished and modified bayonets typically made using ex German WWI ersatz bayonets but also others. The Bayonets are typically converted to fit the Turkish 1935 rifle.

Example German brass hilt ersatz fitted with crossguard further back on hilt and blade shortened to 10"

Unit Mark

A marking on a bayonet that indicates which unit it was issued to and often the weapon number to which it was paired. It is not possible to typically place that bayonet to a specific person, without going through the service record of every person in that unit and seeing if they were assigned a particular weapon/bayonet pair. The markings can be found on the pommel, the end of the pommel, the crossguard and/or the throat of the scabbard.

Top picture is the throat of a German 98/02 originally issued to the 3rd Pioneers and then re issued (probably when removed from first line service) the Reserve 2nd Pioneers

2nd picture is a Czech re issued German S98

Unstopped Fuller The fuller does not have a distinct start and stop, usually due to shortening of the bayonet, but occasionally part of the original design (German 71/84's show this in later models)
Volunteer Volunteer units were a form of militia unit, and not part of the standing army, these were common in the UK before WWI. Often they were equipped with the same arms as the standing army but weapons were bought privately and do not have military acceptance marks and may have slight differences (brass instead of steel scabbard mounts for example)

UK 1888 Volunteer does not have a cleaning hole
Waffenampt German WWII army acceptance mark

White

 

Used to describe a bayonet in which the metal surfaces have no protective bluing or other coating, i.e. the blade “is in the white”

Wire Cutter

Typically for modern bayonets the bayonet has a hole in the end of the blade that used in conjunction with a stud on the end of the scabbard forms a wire cutter allowing wire including electrical wiring to be cut. (AK bayonets, US M9)

Older designs use a catch designed To hold a wire steady and the wire is cut by firing the rifle (Russian 1891), or a cutter attached to the blade forming pliers which are used to cut the wire.

Also used were add on assemblies that held the wire (typically meant for barbed wire in WWI) as bullet was fired to cut it (UK 1903/1907, French Lebel)

The top picture shows the scabbard stud and cutter on a US M9, this mates with a hole in the end of the bayonet allowing the blade to pivot and cut the wire between the cutter plate and the blade itself.

The lower picture is of a wire cutter adaptor that fits on a French 1886 Lebel bayonet holding the wire in line with the muzzle allowing the soldier to shoot the wire

Wrap Around grip A grip that when attached completely covers the tang

Example is an Indian Long SLR bayonet

Yataghan

A double curved bayonet based on an African blade design. The French used the design on their 1840 Bayonet and for the next 30+ years most countries had at least one bayonet with the same S shaped blade

Example is an Egyptian 1914

Z slot

 

A description of the slot type in a socket bayonet